Life in Caldwell in 1837-41, The Cleveland Years – Quiz

Life in Caldwell in 1837-41,  The Cleveland Years


  1. How many people lived in Caldwell in 1840?
  2. 2000 b. 1436  c. 988  d. 250  e. 486


  1. Who else lived in Caldwell?
  2. Dutch Americans b. native Americans  c. black Americans  d. German Americans  e. Irish Americans f. Asian Americans  g. Hispanic Americans  f Hawaiian Americans


  1. Who else lived in Caldwell?
  2. rabbits b. bears  c. raccoons  d. deer  e. mountain lions f. foxes  g. rats  h. groundhogs i. squirrels j. moles k. bats,  l.  muskrats,  m. minks  n. opossums o. porcupines


  1. Where were stray domesticated animals kept until their owners picked them up?


  1. Each mature sheep today gives us about 30 lbs. Of wool. How many lbs did they give Caldwell farmers the 1830-40’s?


  1. Why did Caldwell farmers and drovers like oxen so much?


  1. Grover’s home in the old manse lacked which features?
  2. running water b. central heating c. electricity d. bathroom and toilet e. stove f. refrigerator g. washing machine h. screens i.telephone j. vacuum cleaner k. kerosene lamp.


  1. Which local social services did Caldwell have in 1840?
  2. police force b. fire department c. militia d. bank e. poor house f. hospital g. library h. board of health i. mayor and council  j. sewer plant l. public school system


  1. What is a tannery?
  2. beach club b. leather factory  c. paint store d. tea salon e. bakery


  1. What diseases did Caldwell residents have vaccinations for?
  2. small pox  b. measles  c. Whooping cough d. diphtheria  e. tuberculosis g. cholera  g. typhoid
  3. fever  h. influenza i. tetnus j. polio  k. malaria l. German measles




Life in Caldwell in the 1830-40s    The Answers!



  1. 250 people, Caldwell included then all the surrounding towns as well.


  1. Hawaiian Americans are not recorded and the last names in the census suggest they were not present.


  1. Mountain lion; the last one was killed on Roseland Avenue in 1832.  Almost all the predatory animals were hunted out and killed by the farmers to protect their live stock.


  1. Stray domestic animals were kept on the Green, now the corner of Roseland and Bloomfield Avenue. Until the 1870s domestic animals were fenced out of farms and gardens and  not fenced in to pastures and farms and ranches.  Most animals came home to be milked and fed.


  1. About 9 lbs for a mature ram; modern animal husbandry began in the 18th century without understanding genetics, just careful examination and selection of characteristics.  Sheep doubled in weight on average from 1740-1840s.  Also, crop rotation with winter crops, allowing animals to graze and fertilize the fields but not let them lie fallow every third year, meant that there was food for the animals all winter long (and for people), so all the animals did not have to be slaughtered each fall and could grow bigger and heavier (and wooly).


  1. Oxen, unlike horses, have cloven feet. Cloven feet meant they could walk on rocky ground without splitting their hooves  and had good traction.  Have you ever tried to dig a hole in Caldwell?  Oxen can also walk at a steady pace for longer distances pulling their loads.  Oxen do not, however, back up and need a wide space to turn around.


  1. Grover’s mom and servant had none of those aides. Stoves to burn wood for cooking were invented by Benj. Thompson in 1833;  improved and produced in 1834 by Philo Stewart (the Oberlin Stove) but were expensive and not readily available until a decade later.  Kerosene lamps became available after kerosene was discovered in the 1850s.


  1. None of those services except the militia. Caldwell was incorporated in 1892; before the services if they existed were provided by the county or the larger Caldwell.


  1. Tanneries were “factories” where animal skims were treated to produce leather. The Caldwells had many trees to provide the bark, animals their hides, and seasonal labor.  Tanneries tan hides by soaking the flesh off with acids made from tree bark.  They stank.  Tanneries were not permitted in cities whenever possible, the beginning of public health laws.


  1. Only one, smallpox. That vaccination was achieved by giving a person a mild case of cow pox.  Jenner, the early advocate  for small pox vaccination,  was born in 1749 and died in 1796.  There was no knowledge of germs just what appeared to be a better protection from the disease among workers with cows.  Any large gathering of people, without social distancing,  makes spreading disease easier.  For example,  Washington almost lost the continental army to smallpox; he made the army be vaccinated while in Morristown.  During the Civil War Lincoln caught smallpox; the Confederate army was plagued with malaria and the Union army with measles.  They were all deadly diseases at that time.   Smallpox is the only one now very rarely experienced.


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